A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE CITY TASIKMALAYA
Today, the word "Tasikmalaya" is used for two local government hierarchy name. First, the autonomous region Tasikmalaya regency headed by a regent to the surrounding area of 2508.91 km2. Before being named Tasikmalaya, the district named Sukapura founded by Sultan Agung of Mataram on Muharram 9 Years Alif, together with Bandung Regency and Regency Parakanmuncang (van der Chjis, 1880: 80-81). Second, the Tasikmalaya autonomous regions, led by a mayor to the extent of about 177.79 km2 which was inaugurated on October 17, 2001. Under Law No. 10 of 2001, the city of Tasikmalaya includes three former City Administrative Tasikmalaya district, namely: Cihideung, Tawang, and Cipedes, as well as five districts were taken from Tasikmalaya regency, namely: Indihiang, Mangkubumi, Kawalu, and Cibeureum (Indonesia , 2001; Marlina, 2007: 98). Based on the 2000 census, has a population of around 528 216 Tasikmalaya soul so that its density reached 2,971 people / km. Population density in the city center of Tasikmalaya (Cihideung, Tawang, and Cipedes) reached more than 7,800 people / km (Santoso [ed.], 2004: 333).
Tasikmalaya city government is still so young. However, the existence of Tasikmalaya was known long before the city government was formed. In the colonial period, Tasikmalaya showed dynamic growth as the functions of a city district of the city (districts) to city residency (Residentie). Meanwhile, viewed from the aspect of government administration, the city of Tasikmalaya Regency is not identical with Sukapura. On the other hand, public opinion shows that the dynamic Tasikmalaya is the result of developments Sukapura District.
Growth Tasikmalaya important to investigate because until now the town became the barometer in the East Priangan (Santoso [ed.], 2004: 337). In this paper, not all aspects of growth is an indicator of a city will be studied, but limited to three issues, namely: first, when Tasikmalaya name began to be used in the administration of the colonial government?, Secondly, whether the Tasikmalaya District is a manifestation of a change in Tawang district?; third, whether the growth associated with the development of Tasikmalaya regency Sukapura?
Tasikmalaya: Overview etymological
There are two statements that explain the origin of the name of Tasikmalaya and the second statement indicates that the Tasikmalaya is a name derived from two words. First, Tasikmalaya is a name derived from the word laya tasik jeung that has meaning keusik ngalayah or sand as a result of the eruption of Mount Galunggung in 1822. Second, Tasikmalaya is a combination of words meaning Sea of lake, sea, or water that flooded, and malaya which means mountain range. Toponymy This implies that the existence of the mountain to reach the thousands like sea water (number) (Permadi, 1975: 3). There are mountains formed before and after the 1822 eruption of Mount Galunggung. Geologically, the eruption resulted in the creation of a steep cliff that forms a horseshoe formation to the east of Mount Galunggung. Several years after the massive eruption, the rise of small hills (hillocks) the approximately 3,648 pieces. Small hills that are then strengthened geogafis typical Tasikmalaya region (Furuya, 1978: 591-592; Zen, 1968: 62;).
Based on these descriptions, some have argued that the name of Tasikmalaya was born and began to be used in government administration after Galunggung erupted in 1822 (Ekadjati et al., 1975: 5; Marlina, 2007: 36). Difficult to accept the notion that Tasikmalaya began to be used after Galunggung erupted in 1822. Indeed, in a 1816 report Priangan Resident, Tasikmalaya not be used as the name of a district, the district administration under the district (de la Faille, 1895: 53). However, in 1820 the name was used in the administration of Tasikmalaya Netherlands East Indies. In that year, the name was used in the Tasikmalaya district administration under the name Dutch East Indies government Distrikt Tasjikmalaija op Tjitjariang with 37 markers throughout the region (Statistiek van Java. 1820). At the end of the 1830s, the name of the district to be Distrikt Tasjikmalaija covering about 79 villages (Algemeen Instructie van Alle Inlandsche Hoofden en Beambten ... 1839). Authors tend to argue that Tasikmalaya name began to be used between the years 1816-1820 or in the early days of the Commissioner-General of the Dutch East Indies government. This is in line with the suggestion that the name was adopted before Tasikmalaya Galunggung erupted in 1822 and the naming of the rose after a natural event that occurs (Roswandi, 2006: 232).
District Cicariang be Tasikmalaya District
If it's a new Tasikmalaya name used between 1816-1820, then the area now called Tasikmalaya was previously named what? In addition, if the name of the District (City) Tasikmalaya is the embodiment of the name of the region?
Before being named Tasikmalaya, this region called Tawang, Galunggung, or Tawang-Galunggung. Tawang is taken from the Sawang, the wide open space in the language can be interpreted also as a meaningful palalangon have meaning as the place whence panyawangan anu ka ka plungplong dieu (Ekadjati et al., 1975: 3; musch, 1918: 202; Permadi, 1975: 3). Now, Tawang district is one of the names and some of the region is the center of Tasikmalaya. Meanwhile, Galunggung name is much better known than the Tawang because as the name of a kabuyutan. Until the early 19th century, the area that includes the area Galunggung Tasikmalaya now, is part of the district Parakanmuncang (de la Faille, 1895: 123). When the district was dissolved by Daendels in 1811, the area Galunggung put in Sumedang district territory.
When the district system was introduced in the traditional bureaucracy, the area had changed its status to Tawang Tawang district and at district government center located in Manonjaya Sukapura (1839-1901), District Tawang is one of the districts in the district Sumedang (Marlina, 1972: 6; Sastrahadiprawira, 1953: 182). Therefore, the use of Tasikmalaya name is an attempt to change the name or Tawang Tawang-Galunggung (Roswandi, 2006: 232). Did we like it?
In Verslag Omtrent de Residentie Preanger-Regentschappen en Krawang 1816, Raffles divide the region based on the district system headed by a district officer. Sumedang district is divided into several districts, among others Ciawi, Pagerageung, Rajapolah, Indihiang, Cicariang, and Singaparna. Meanwhile, in the District Sukapura there is a place called Tawang District or District Galunggung.
Cicariang district is an area of government that evolved into Tasikmalaya district as geographically Cicariang District government is almost equal to the area of Tasikmalaya District government. This is reinforced by the statistics made by the Dutch Government. In that year, the administration of the Government of the Dutch East Indies in 1820, Sumedang District is divided into several districts, one of which called Distrikt Tasjikmalaija op Tjitjariang with 37 markers throughout the region and the central government in Tasjikmalaija en Tjitjariang (Statistiek van Java. 1820). Tasikmalaya and Cicariang position as hoofdplaats van het op Distrikt Tassikmalaija Cicariang map recorded in Tasikmalaya District early 19th century.
At the end of the 1830s, the name Distrikt Tasjikmalaija op Tjitjariang disappeared. In the administration of the Dutch East Indies Government that there is Distrikt Tasjikmalaija covering about 79 villages (Algemeen Instructie van en Beambten Hoofden Inlandsche Alle ... 1839,). In the mid-19th century, Tasikmalaya District is divided into seven onderdistrik, namely onderdistrikten Sambong, Siloeman, Tjibodas, Tjisangkir, Tjihideung, Pagaden, Mangkoeboemi, en Tjibeuti (Veth, 1869: 906.). Tasikmalaya position as the center of the district administration and the seven other onderdistrik recorded in the Atlas van Nederlandsch Indie Algemeen made in 1857 (van Carbee en Versteeg, 1853-1862).
This fact shows us that the Tasikmalaya District is not a change of name of Tawang district, but the change of Cicariang District. The changes are not made directly but rather gradually. This can be seen from the use of the name of the district (Tjitjariang - Tassikmalaija op Tjitjariang - Tasikmalaja). Likewise, the government's central location, at first not only located in Tasikmalaya, but also in Cicariang.
From City to City District District
In his article titled Sukapura (Tasikmalaya), Ietje Marlina (2000: 91-110) looked at as part of Tasikmalaya regency Sukapura growth. This idea later became the general opinion as seen from the writings of the City of Tasikmalaya (Adeng, 2005; Roswandi, 2006). Indeed, discussion of Tasikmalaya Tasikmalaya regency should be distinguished. Last name of the government that simply can not be separated from the existence of the fact Sukapura district of Tasikmalaya Regency is the embodiment of the District Sukapura. Description of Tasikmalaya should be seen as part of the development of Sumedang District.
When Distrikt Tasjikmalaija op Tjitjariang began to be used in the administration of the government, Tasikmalaya City serves as the central government together with Tjitjariang. Position is not changed until the district system is removed during the Government of the Republic of Indonesia. In 1862, the Dutch introduced the system of governance structures afdeeling in the district. The goal is to reduce the power of the regents for day-to-day administration in the region run by Hoofd van afdeeling plaatselijke bestuur (resident assistant level) which was accompanied by the governor or the governor Zelfstandige afdeeling (Indonesia, 1953: 157-158; Lopez, et al., 20031: 340). Afdeeling system applies to districts that have a large enough area. One of the districts in Residentie Preanger-Regentschappen who have ample area is thus based system Sumedang District afdeeling the territory was split into two afdeeling. First, Afdeeling Baloeboer op Noord Soemedang comprising 6 districts, 39 onder districts, and 209 villages. Second, Afdeeling Galoenggoeng Soemedang op Zuid district consisting of 5, 41 onder districts, and 254 villages. Afdeeling Baloeboer have Geographische 16.93 Mijlen area along 650 pal or Afdeeling while the surrounding area has a long Galoenggoeng 15.85 Geographische Mijlen or about 383 pal (Statistiek der Preanger Regentschappen. 1863). Central government Afdeeling Soemedang Galoenggoeng op Zuid is located about 7 Manonjaya pal of town, the district capital Sukapura, and about 55 Sumedang pal of town, the district capital Sumedang (Veth, 18693: 906).
This change had an impact on the status of Tasikmalaya, because since Afdeeling Galoenggoeng op Zuid Soemedang formed, Tasikmalaya City not only serves as hoofdplaats der district but also as hoofdplaats der afdeeling. Thus, Tasikmalaya not only home to the district officer, but also a place to stay as a resident assistant and Hoofd van plaatselijke bestuur Zelfstandige governor. The fact is interesting to investigate in depth because the distance to the City of Tasikmalaya Sumedang relatively more distant, but serves as governor Zelfstandige position as vice-regent of Sumedang in running the day-to-day administration. Tasikmalaya city even closer to the city at the time Manonjaya which serves as the center of government Sukapura district.
In 1870 Preangerstelsel removed by the Dutch government, except for coffee cultivation. One year later, the Dutch reorganized the administrative regions Preanger Regentschappen or known by the name Preanger Reorganisatie. In the reorganization, Residentie der Preanger Regentschappen divided into nine afdeeling led by a resident assistant. Most afdeeling united with the district so that day-to-day administration is run by the regents and resident assistant; partly stands alone so the government is run by a governor and an assistant resident afdeeling (Lubis, 1998: 33; Natanagara, 1937: 114). Under the reorganization, the name Afdeeling Galoenggoeng op Zuid Soemedang changed to Afdeeling Tasjikmalaija with government administrative region has not changed, including the central government is still based in the city of Tasikmalaya.
Based Besluit van den Gouverneur-Generaal van Nederlandsch-Indië dated 1 September 1901. No.. 4, starting from December 1, 1901 Afdeeling Tasikmalaya removed and incorporated its territory into three districts. Ciawi district, Indihiang, Tasikmalaya, and Singaparna put Sukapura district; Onderdistrik Malangbong Kulon and Lewo (District Malangbong) put Limbangan district, and Onderdistrik Cilengkrang put Sumedang district. Along with that, the seat of government was transferred to the District Sukapura Tasikmalaya, which began on October 1, 1901, but only confirmed by the Dutch government on December 1, 1901 (Gazette van Nederlandsch-Indië voor het Jaar 1901. No.. 327). Orders caused by the removal of the first, the strategic location of the town of Tasikmalaya, especially if associated with the interests of the Dutch East Indies, and second, Tasikmalaya more potential for development than Manonjaya City (Marlina, 2007: 92).
In 1913, the Dutch government changed the name to Tasikmalaya regency Sukapura (Statute van Nederlandsch-Indië voor het Jaar 1913. No.. 356). Likewise, the name was changed to Afdeeling Afdeeling Sukapura Tasikmalaya. Since then, the center of government Tasikmalaya some local government hierarchy, among others Afdeeling Tasikmalaya, Tasikmalaya regency, Controle-Afdeeling Tasikmalaya, Tasikmalaya District, and Onderdistrik Tasikmalaya. In 1921, Tasikmalaya District has an area of approximately 178 km2 which is divided into three onderdistrik, namely Tasikmalaya, Kawalu, and Indihiang, as well as the number of villages about 46 pieces (Encyclopaedia van Nederlandsch-Indie, 19 214: 285; Regeeringsalmanak voor NI, 19 191: 394) .
In the period 1926-1931, Tasikmalaya increasingly important position as the center of government Afdeeling Oost-Priangan. This form of government is the implementation of the 1922 Bestuurshervormingwet split into three afdeeling Priangan residency, ie Afdeeling West-Priangan, Midden-Priangan, and Oost-Priangan, each headed by a resident. Afdeeling Oost-Priangan include Garut, Tasikmalaya, and Kudat (Regeeringsalmanak voor NI, 19301: 327-336). Along with the removal of Oost-Priangan Afdeeling 1931, Tasikmalaya function again because it no longer changes the position of prefect.
Based on the description that has been done, can be summarized as follows. First, Tasikmalaya has been used as the name of an area of government between the years 1816-1820. Prior to that period, is a known name Tawang, Galunggung, or Tawang-Galunggung. When Galunggung erupted on 8 and October 12, 1822, the name was used in the Tasikmalaya district government administration.
Second, the use of the name as the name of Tasikmalaya district is not a change of Tawang district because of the district's various archival sources were never recorded. At the time of Raffles (1816) in the region there is a district called Priangan Cicariang. By the Commissioner-General of the Dutch East Indies, the name was changed to The Pod Tassikmalaija Tjitjariang op. At the end of the 1930s, the name changed again to the district Tassikmalaija Distrikt. Once transformed, into a onderdistrik Cicariang with Cibeuti name with the central government in Cibeuti.
Third, the growth of Tasikmalaya not as part of the development of the District Sukapura, but as part of the dynamics of Sumedang District. New in 1901, Tasikmalaya is an integral part of the District Sukapura which later changed its name to the district of Tasikmalaya. Meanwhile, growth in Tasikmalaya city can be seen from the original function as a resident of the district who developed such that it serves as the city and county residency.